Street Tree Diversity in Three Northeastern U.S. States & Tools for Staging and Managing Emerald Ash Borer in the Urban Forest
These 2 publications from Arboriculture and Urban Forests (Volume 43, Issue 1) share important information and reserach conducted on climate resilience of trees in urban areas:
Street tree diversity is widely viewed as a key component in the resilience of street tree populations to pests, diseases, and climate change. Assessment of street tree diversity is considered integral to sustainable street tree management and preservation of the ecosystem services and social benefits that street trees provide. This paper assesses street tree diversity in three northeastern U.S. states—New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania—by analyzing municipal street tree inventory data stratified by the 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zones. Despite the lesson learned from the historical devastation of overplanted American elms (Ulmus americana) by Dutch elm disease, and awareness of the contemporary threats posed to ashes (Fraxinus spp.) by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and to maples (Acer spp.), and other tree genera by the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), results presented here indicate a current concentration of street trees among a relatively small number of species and genera, and in particular the dominance of maples as street trees. Results also show a positive relationship between street tree diversity and warmer average minimum winter temperatures. Consequently, there is a clear need in all three states for greater species and genus diversity in statewide and municipal street tree populations. However, meaningful impediments exist to increasing street tree diversity, especially in the short term.
Advances in control can help municipal foresters save ash trees from emerald ash borer (EAB) [Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire)] in urban forests. Although ash trees of any size can be protected from this pest, cities often do not implement programs because they fail to recognize and act on incipient populations of EAB. In this study, researchers develop a model for predicting ash mortality over an eight-year period, and validated with data from the removal of >14,000 ash trees killed by EAB in Fort Wayne, Indiana, U.S. researchers then developed a sampling scheme to help foresters map their ash trees along the expected progression of ash decline. This model was then used to modify a web-based EAB cost calculator that compares discounted annual and cumulative costs of implementing a variety of management strategies. It was determined that strategies that most heavily relied on saving ash trees were less expensive and produced a larger forest than those strategies that mostly removed and replaced ash trees